UPSC Daily Current Affairs - 7th February 2023

UPSC Daily Current Affairs – Mains [7th February 2023]

GS 1

Why Turkey is prone to devastating earthquakes?

Source – Indian Express

Syllabus: Disaster Management

In News

Three earthquakes of varying magnitudes devastated Turkey and Syria along with areas of Cyprus, Lebanon, Israel and Egypt.

Turkey has announced a Level 4 alert calling for international aid; U.S., European Union, Russia, and Azerbaijan have reportedly dispatched aid.

Why is Turkey prone to earthquakes?

  • Complex interactions between the African, Arabian, and Eurasian tectonic plates and the Anatolian tectonic block
  • The Red Sea Rift, spreading center between the African and Arabian plates
  • The Dead Sea Transform, a major strike-slip fault that accommodates Africa-Arabia relative motions
  • The North Anatolia Fault, a right-lateral strike-slip structure in northern Turkey
  • The Cyprian Arc, a convergent boundary between the African plate and the Anatolia block

What are aftershocks and why do they occur?

  • A sequence of earthquakes that happen after a larger main shock on a fault
  • Occur near the fault zone where the main shock rupture occurred
  • Part of the “readjustment process” after the main slip on the fault
  • Can continue for days, weeks, months, or even years for a very large mainshock
  • Becoming less frequent with time.

Decoding India’s population conundrum

Source – The Hindu

Syllabus: Population and Associated Issues

  • India set to overtake China as the world’s most populous nation in 2023
  • UN World Population Prospects 2022 predicts India’s population to be 1.668 billion in 2050
  • India currently has a youth bulge, with a median age of 28.7 years, which presents a demographic dividend
  • Demographic dividend refers to the economic advantage of having a large working-age population


  • India’s population stands at 1,428.6 million in 2023 and is projected to have a population of 1.668 billion in 2050
  • China’s population is 1,411.8 million in 2022

Implications for India


  • Young population, with prospects to reap the demographic dividend
  • High growth rate potential due to a larger working-age population and more tax revenues
  • Lower number of elderly and young children needing care


  • Lack of policies for education, skilling, and health in place
  • Vast underemployment among educated youths
  • Uneven population growth in different states
  • The absence of meaningful opportunities for the youth could lead to a demographic nightmare

Way Ahead:

  • India must shift its focus from population control to population development
  • India must frame policies and strategies to effectively unleash the full potential of its young people
  • India must create high-quality jobs and equip its young, skilled workforce to fill them.

GS 2

NCST functioning with less than 50% of sanctioned strength

Source – The Hindu

Syllabus: Constitutional and Statutory bodies

In News

Data from the Ministry of Tribal Affairs (MoTA) revealed that the National Commission for Scheduled Tribes (NCST) is currently functioning with less than 50% of its sanctioned strength.

Issues with the staffing in the National Commission for Scheduled Tribes (NCST):

  • Sanctioned strength: The NCST is supposed to have a Chairperson, a Vice-Chairperson, and three Members, with two of the Vice-Chairperson and Members being from the ST community and one being a woman. Currently, only the Chairperson and one Member are serving, with all other positions being vacant for the last three years.
  • Posts under Group A, B, and C:
    • 70 out of 124 sanctioned posts are currently vacant
    • Group A posts (Superintendent of Police, Law Officer, Accounts Officer) have been vacant since 2004 and are filled by the Ministry
    • Groups B and C posts are the NCST’s responsibility, but recruitment rules for these posts have yet to be framed
    • Posts of Research Officers, Investigators, and Directors are also vacant
    • Ministry claims the eligibility bar was set too high, leading to a lack of applicants
  • Other concerns:
    • Fewer meetings: Held only four times in the financial year 2021-22
    • High rate of pendency of cases: Close to 50% rate of resolution of complaints and cases

About the NCST:

  • Set up in 2004 through a constitutional amendment
  • Created as a separate commission from the erstwhile National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, which was replaced by two separate commissions: the National Commission for Scheduled Castes (NCSC) and the National Commission for Scheduled Tribes (NCST).

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