Indian Philosophy and tradition played a significant role in conceiving and shaping the monuments and their art in India. Discuss. (250 words, 15 marks)

Indian philosophy encompasses various philosophical traditions that originated in the Indian subcontinent, including Hindu, Buddhist, Jain, and others.

The rock-cut architecture represents one of the most important sources of our knowledge of early Indian art and history. Discuss. (150 words, 10 marks)

Rock-cut architecture holds a significant position in the history of Indian Architecture, representing some of the most spectacular ancient Indian art specimens. This type of Rock Art involves carving structures out of solid natural rock. India boasts over 1,500 rock-cut structures, many of which were closely linked to religious, social, and political activities.

Trace the rise and growth of socio-religious reform movements with special reference to Young Bengal and Brahmo Samaj. (Answer in 150 words)

19th-century Indian socio-religious reform movements were responses to colonial rule, led by educated elites, challenging traditional beliefs, and reshaping public culture. The Young Bengal movement and Brahmo Samaj played pivotal roles.

Evaluate the nature of Bhakti Literature and its contribution to Indian culture. (Answer in 150 words)

“Bhakti,” stemming from Sanskrit for “devotion,” is a medieval Indian spiritual movement expressed through poetic and literary works dedicated to deities and revered figures. This literature has profoundly impacted religious practices, culture, and society in India.