Ports of Ancient India – UPSC Notes – Art and Culture

Introduction:

India’s maritime legacy is etched in the ancient ports that once thrived along its coastline. These ports served as gateways to the world, fostering trade, cultural exchanges, and establishing India as a pivotal player in the ancient global economy. Let’s explore the salient features of various ancient ports that have left an enduring mark on India’s maritime history.

Ancient Ports and Salient Features:

1. Lothal Port (Gujarat):

  • Oldest Port: Lothal stands as the oldest known port in India.
  • Archaeological Discoveries: Excavations by the Archaeological Survey of India revealed a complete port city, including a marketplace and a dock, substantiating Lothal’s maritime significance.

2. Muziris Port (Kerala):

  • International Trade Hub: Muziris played a vital role in connecting India to civilizations such as Persians, Phoenicians, Assyrians, Greeks, Egyptians, and the Roman Empire.
  • Key Exports: Black pepper, semi-precious stones, diamonds, ivory, and pearls were exported, with goods arriving from over 30 countries.

3. Poompuhar Port (Tamil Nadu):

  • Chola Empire’s Port: Poompuhar, situated at the mouth of the Kaveri River, served as a significant port town for the Chola Empire.
  • Asian Trade Hub: Indian merchants traded spices and other commodities with Asian countries and Arab nations.

4. Arikamedu Port (Puducherry):

  • Historical Significance: Arikamedu, known as Podouke, was a Chola port dedicated to bead making with ties to Romans.
  • Diverse Exports: Textiles, terracotta artifacts, plants, spices, and jewelry were shipped from Arikamedu to Roman ports and other eastern destinations.

5. Bharuch Port (Gujarat):

  • Trade Relations: Bharuch, also known as Bharukaccha, established trade relations with Arabs, Greeks, Romans, Africans, Chinese, and Egyptians.
  • Land-Sea Trade Hub: Positioned at the mouth of the Narmada River, Bharuch served as a terminus for land-sea trade routes.

6. Sopara Port (Mumbai):

  • Historical Capital: Sopara was an ancient port town, the capital of Aparanta, and the largest township on India’s west coast in ancient times.
  • Trade Connections: It traded with Mesopotamia, Egypt, Cochin, Arabia, and Eastern Africa.

7. Calicut Port (Kerala):

  • Spice Trade Hub: Calicut, or Kozhikode, was a bustling port on the west coast known for trading spices like pepper, cloves, and cinnamon.
  • Chera Regime Growth: It grew as a significant trade center under the Chera regime, facilitating exchanges with Chinese ceramics and European pots.

8. Tuticorin Port (Tamil Nadu):

  • Dynastic Rule: Tuticorin, or Thoothukudi, served as an important seaport under dynasties like the Pandyas and Cholas.
  • Key Trade: The region’s primary trade included fishery and pearls.

9. Nirppeyarru (Tamil Nadu):

  • Ancient Location: An ancient port located in Tamil Nadu, identified with modern Mahabalipuram.

10. Tondi Port (Tamil Nadu):

  • Pandya Dynasty Hub: Tondi was a crucial port during the Pandya dynasty, located in Tamil Nadu.

11. Korkai Port (Tamil Nadu):

  • Pandya Dynasty Center: Korkai was an important port of the Pandya dynasty, situated in Tamil Nadu.

12. Motupalli (Andhra Pradesh):

  • Kakatiya Dynasty Port: Motupalli was a significant port during the Kakatiya Dynasty, located in Andhra Pradesh.

13. Machilipatnam (Andhra Pradesh):

  • Satavahana Period: Evidence suggests Machilipatnam’s existence mainly during the Satavahana period.
  • Major Trade Item: Flourishing sea trade, with muslin clothes being a major trade item.

14. Tamralipti (West Bengal):

  • Eastern Coast Hub: Tamralipti, located on the eastern coast near the Bay of Bengal and River Ganga, was a vital center of trade and commerce.
  • Textual References: References in historical texts and inscriptions highlight its multidirectional links with different regions of South Asia.

15. Pulicat Port (Tamil Nadu):

  • Vijayanagar Reign: Pulicat served as an important port during the reign of Vijayanagar kings on the east coast.

16. Barbaricum (near Karachi):

  • Indus Delta Port: An ancient port near Karachi in the Indus Delta, significant for Indo-Roman trade in ancient times.

Conclusion:

The mosaic of ancient Indian ports reflects a vibrant tapestry of trade, culture, and historical significance. These ports were not just conduits for goods but also served as meeting points for civilizations, shaping India’s maritime heritage. Today, they stand as silent witnesses to a bygone era of seafaring exploration and global connectivity.

Frequently Asked Questions on Ports in Ancient India

1. Q: Which is the oldest port in India?

  • A: The oldest port in India is Lothal, located in Gujarat.

2. Q: What was the primary export from Muziris Port?

  • A: Muziris was a hub for exporting spices, particularly black pepper, along with semi-precious stones, diamonds, ivory, and pearls.

3. Q: Which ancient port had ties with Romans for bead making?

  • A: Arikamedu, located in Puducherry, was a Chola port known for bead making and had ties with Romans.

4. Q: Where is Tamralipti located, and what was its significance?

  • A: Tamralipti, situated on the eastern coast near the Bay of Bengal, was a crucial center of trade and commerce in early historic India.

5. Q: What major trade item was associated with Machilipatnam Port?

  • A: Machilipatnam, in Andhra Pradesh, saw flourishing sea trade during the Satavahana period, with muslin clothes being a major trade item.

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