Landform and its development

Landform and its Development – UPSC Geography Notes

A Landform, which constitutes a small to medium-sized segment of the Earth’s surface, contributes to the formation of landscapes when multiple related landforms coexist. The genesis of each landform stems from the interplay of specific geomorphic processes (endogenic and exogenic) and agents (such as rainfall, wind, glaciers, and waves). Distinguished by unique physical attributes, size, and characteristics, these landforms are subject to continual transformation over time as a result of ongoing geomorphic processes and the impact of various agents.

  • The progression of landforms refers to the phases involved in the transition from one landform to another, or the alteration of individual landforms subsequent to their formation. As such, a landform undergoes distinct developmental stages, categorized as youth, maturity, and old age.
  • Key factors contributing to the evolution of landforms are erosion and deposition. The majority of geomorphic processes occur gradually, making them imperceptible to immediate observation.
  • The evolution of landforms is contingent upon the influence of geomorphic agents, namely, running water, groundwater, glaciers, waves, and winds. These agents facilitate the erosion of land masses and concurrently contribute to the development of certain landforms through deposition. The combined processes of erosion and deposition play a pivotal role in shaping the Earth’s surface.

Running Water

  • Flowing water represents the principal geomorphic force accountable for the erosion of the Earth’s surface. It can manifest in the form of streams, rivers meandering through valleys, or as overland sheets on the general land surface.
  • Youthful and dynamic rivers, coursing over steep gradients, primarily give rise to erosional landforms. As time progresses, the velocity of the streams diminishes due to ongoing erosion, leading to a gentler flow conducive to active deposition.
    • The propensity for deposition is more pronounced in river channels characterized by moderate to gentle slopes.
    • As the riverbeds become more gradual due to continuous erosion, the dominance of downward cutting subsides, giving way to an increase in lateral erosion along the banks. This process gradually transforms hills and valleys into plains.
  • Overland flow results in sheet erosion, following a variable path determined by the irregularities of the land surface. The flowing water transports varying amounts of material, leading to the formation of narrow rills, which, over time, evolve into extensive gullies. These gullies continue to deepen, lengthen, widen, and eventually merge to form an intricate network of valleys.
  • The developmental stages showcase an initial emphasis on down cutting, followed by an intensification of lateral erosion in the middle phases. Consequently, the valley sides are reduced to lower slopes, and the divides between drainage basins are gradually lowered, creating a flattened terrain with minimal relief. In this landscape, certain remnants of low-resistant rocks, known as monadnocks, stand out sporadically. This type of plain resulting from stream erosion is referred to as a peneplain, characterized by an almost flat topography.

The distinctive features defining the various stages of landscape evolution in the context of running water regimes can be outlined as follows:

Youth

  • Also referred to as the mountain stage
  • High stream velocity due to steep slopes
  • V-shaped valleys formed through vertical erosion
  • Limited stream integration
  • Absence of floodplains or presence of narrow floodplains along trunk streams in valleys
  • Broad, flat stream divides with marshes, swamps, and lakes
  • Occasional presence of waterfalls and rapids around exposed hard rock formations

Mature or Middle Stage

  • Numerous streams display robust integration.
  • Lateral erosion prevails, leading to the widening of the valley.
  • The river’s volume notably increases, while the slope of the river becomes more moderate.
  • Meandering streams become a common feature within the confined valley.
  • Swamps and marshes present during the previous stage diminish, and the stream divide becomes more defined.
  • Waterfalls and rapids gradually vanish.

Old or Lower Stage

  • Streams exhibit unrestricted meandering across expansive floodplains, revealing natural levees, ox-bow lakes, and similar features.
  • Divides are broad, accompanied by the presence of swamps, marshes, and lakes.
  • River depth is relatively shallow in this phase.
  • The majority of the landscape is at, or slightly above, sea level.

Erosional Landforms

  • Valleys:
    • Valleys created by rivers are the result of erosional processes.
    • Small rills progressively transform into wide gullies, shaping various types of valleys such as V-shaped valleys, canyons, and gorges.
  • Gorge:
    • Formed by the active down-cutting of valleys, gorges are narrow, steep-sided river valleys, often found in hard rock formations.
    • Gorges typically maintain a consistent width from top to bottom.
  • Canyon:
    • Characterized by steep, terraced side slopes, canyons can be as deep as gorges and are wider at the top than at the bottom.
    • Typically formed in horizontally bedded sedimentary rocks.
    • The Grand Canyon in Arizona, USA, and the Gandikota Canyon in Andhra Pradesh, India, are notable examples.
  • V-shaped Valley:
    • Created by rivers cutting their beds vertically due to steep slopes and high water volume, resulting in a narrow, deep river valley.
  • Potholes:
    • Small cylindrical depressions in rocky beds found primarily in coarse-grained rocks such as sandstones and granites.
  • Plunge Pool:
    • A deep hollow in a stream bed at the base of a waterfall, formed by the erosive force of falling water.
  • Incised or Entrenched Meanders:
    • Formed by streams undergoing lateral erosion, these sinuous or meandering courses can be found in floodplains, delta plains, or even cut into hard rocks.
  • River Terraces:
    • Narrow, flat platforms flanking the valley floor, reflecting past levels of the valley floor.

Depositional Landforms

Alluvial fans

Alluvial fans commonly occur at the bases of mountain ranges. When streams cascade down mountain slopes, they carry a substantial, coarse load that is too weighty to be transported over milder inclines. Consequently, this sediment settles and accumulates, forming a wide, cone-shaped alluvial fan. These fans consist of deposits comprising gravel, sand, and other small sedimentary particles.

Over time, the streams that flow across these fans alter their courses, giving rise to multiple distributaries. In regions with high humidity, alluvial fans tend to exhibit lower cones and gradual slopes. Conversely, in arid and semi-arid areas, alluvial fans manifest as taller cones characterized by steeper inclines.

Delta

The Delta is situated in the mature phase of a river. It constitutes a triangular land shape formed by the accumulation of alluvial deposits at the river’s mouth. In contrast to alluvial fans, the sediments comprising deltas are meticulously sorted, displaying distinct layers. Initially, the coarsest materials settle, while the finer components such as clays and silts are transported further into the sea.

Floodplain

The floodplain represents a significant feature resulting from river deposition. It is a level expanse of land that lies alongside a river, extending from the channel’s edge to the foot of the enclosing valley walls, susceptible to flooding during periods of high discharge. The actively changing floodplain comprises the riverbed constituted by river deposits, while the inactive floodplain is situated above the riverbanks.

Natural Levees and Point bars

  • Natural levees and point bars are two features commonly found within floodplains.
  • Natural levees emerge alongside the edges of expansive rivers. They appear as elongated, low ridges of coarse deposits that run parallel to the riverbanks, often manifesting as individual mounds.
  • Point bars, also referred to as meander bars, are situated on the inside curves of meandering large rivers. They originate from sediments deposited linearly by the flowing water along the banks. Characterized by a mixture of sediment sizes, they typically maintain a consistent profile and width.

Meanders

In flood and delta plains, a distinctive channel configuration known as meanders forms. Meanders represent a specific type of channel pattern resulting from both erosional and depositional activities. These features are commonly observed in the middle and lower sections of a river’s course.

The formation of meanders can be attributed to various factors:

  • Lateral erosion occurs as water flows over gentler slopes, leading to the development of meanders.
  • The irregularities in the banks, consisting of unconsolidated alluvial deposits, provide leverage for the laterally exerted pressure of the water.
  • The Coriolis force impacts the fluid water, causing deflection analogous to its effect on wind patterns.

Within meanders, deposition is actively carried out along the concave banks, while erosion predominates along the convex banks. As meanders gradually elongate into pronounced loops, they may eventually sever at inflection points due to erosion, resulting in the formation of oxbow lakes.

Groundwater

The effects of groundwater activity are not universally evident in all rock types. The physical or mechanical removal of materials by moving groundwater plays a negligible role in shaping landforms.

However, in calcium carbonate-rich rocks such as dolomite and limestone, both groundwater and surface water contribute to the formation of various landforms through the chemical processes of dissolution and precipitation. These processes are notably active in limestone or dolomite formations, whether occurring exclusively or interspersed with other rock types.

Regions composed of limestone, dolomite, or gypsum that exhibit distinct landforms resulting from the influences of groundwater through the processes of solution and deposition are referred to as Karst topography, named after the characteristic topography observed in the limestone terrain of the Karst region situated adjacent to the Adriatic Sea in the Balkans. Karst topography is recognizable for its combination of erosional and depositional landforms.

Erosional Landforms

  • Sinkhole: A sinkhole is a circular opening that tapers into a funnel shape at the base. Their size can vary, ranging from a few square meters to a hectare, with depths ranging from less than half a meter to over thirty meters. Sinkholes formed exclusively through the process of solution are referred to as solution sinks. Often, these sinkholes are concealed beneath a layer of soil and resemble shallow water pools.
  • Doline/Collapse sinks: Collapse sinks, also known as dolines, occur when the base of the sinkhole becomes the ceiling of an underground void or cave, leading to its collapse and the formation of a large opening into the underlying cavity.
  • Uvala: Uvalas, or valley sinks, emerge when multiple smaller sinkholes merge to form a complex, compound sinkhole.
  • Lappies: Lappies are uneven grooves and ridges that develop as a result of the dissolution process removing most of the limestone surfaces.
  • Caves: Caves typically feature an entrance through which streams flow. Those with openings at both ends are referred to as tunnel caves. Cave formation is prominent in areas where alternating layers of rocks (such as sandstone, shales, quartzite) interlace with dolomites or limestone, or in regions where dense, massive limestone beds are present.

Depositional Landforms

Stalactite: These are formations of calcium carbonate that hang like icicles. Typically, they are wider at the base and narrow towards the tips. Stalactites that extend sideways are referred to as helactites.

Stalagmite: These are calcium carbonate deposits that grow upward from the floor of a cave. Stalagmites can appear as columns or discs, featuring either a smooth, rounded top or a small crater-like depression.

Glaciers

The term “glacier” originates from the French word “glace,” which means ice. A glacier denotes an immense body of ice that moves as expansive sheets. When these ice sheets advance over land, they are referred to as continental glaciers. Conversely, if a vast ice sheet spreads across the plains at the base of mountains, it is called a piedmont glacier. Mountain and valley glaciers flow along the slopes of mountains within broad, trough-like valleys. The primary driving force behind glacier movement is gravitational force, with glacial motion occurring gradually, spanning from a few centimeters to several meters per day.

  • More than 96% of the world’s glaciers are located in Antarctica and Greenland, with the Lambert Glacier in Antarctica ranking as the largest glacier globally.
  • Periodically, the surface of a glacier develops crevasses, which are deep fissures of varying widths that form on the glacier’s surface.

Throughout its existence, a glacier shapes various landforms through both erosional and depositional processes. Erosion occurs through the combined action of plucking and abrasion. As glaciers move, debris is eroded, divides are lowered, and slopes are gradually reduced to a point where glacial movement ceases, leaving behind a series of low hills and expansive outwash plains, alongside other depositional features.

Erosional Landforms

Cirques

  • These formations are prevalent in glaciated mountain regions and are frequently situated at the upper ends of glacial valleys.
  • As a glacier descends along the mountain slopes, it carves out these distinctive features known as cirques.
  • These cirques are characterized by their elongated, profound, and broad troughs or basins, exhibiting steep concave to near-vertical walls at their heads and along their sides.
  • Following the glacier’s retreat, it is common to find bodies of water enclosed within these cirques, referred to as cirque or tarn lakes.
  • In certain cases, a series of two or more cirques can be observed, arranged in a stepped sequence, with one cirque leading into another further down the slope.

Horns and Aretes

  • Horns materialize through the progressive erosion of the cirque walls. When three or more glaciers radiate and erode headward, their respective cirques converge, giving rise to towering, sharply pointed, and steep-sided peaks known as horns.
  • Prominent examples of such formations include Everest, the highest peak in the Himalayas, and Matterhorn, the highest peak in the Alps, both crafted by the headward erosion of radiating cirques.
  • Continued erosion causes the divides between the side walls or headwalls of the cirques to narrow, resulting in the formation of serrated or saw-toothed edges known as aretes. These features are characterized by exceptionally sharp crests and a distinctive zigzag outline.

Glacial Valleys/Troughs

  • Because of the substantial weight and slow movement of glacial masses, erosional effects occur evenly in all directions. Consequently, a valley with steep, curved sides and a U-shaped floor profile emerges. This U-shaped valley represents a characteristic glacial attribute.
  • When subsidiary glaciers lack the capacity to carve as deeply as the primary glacier, they create hanging valleys. These valleys exist at higher elevations than the primary valley and appear to perch over it, ultimately merging with the main valley at an elevated point.
  • Deep glacial troughs, brimming with seawater and forming shorelines, particularly in elevated regions, are referred to as fjords. Fjords are notably prevalent in regions such as Norway, New Zealand, and Greenland.

Depositional Landforms

As glaciers melt, they leave behind a mixture of unsorted coarse and fine debris known as glacial till. The rock fragments within the till typically possess angular to sub-angular shapes. Concurrently, water streams generated from the glacial melting process transport a portion of rock debris, which is relatively fine, and subsequently deposit it. These deposits, known as outwash deposits, demonstrate a relatively stratified and assorted structure, in contrast to the till deposits. Moreover, the rock fragments within the outwash deposits tend to exhibit rounded edges.

Moraines

Moraines refer to the accumulations of glacial till, forming debris fields in regions previously traversed by glaciers. These formations encompass several types, categorized according to their specific locations.

  • Terminal moraines: These elongated ridges of debris are deposited at the leading edge (toe) of glaciers.
  • Lateral moraines: These deposits form ridges that run parallel to the sides of a glacier. Occasionally, a lateral moraine may merge with a terminal moraine, creating a horseshoe-shaped ridge. Glacial valleys may feature multiple lateral moraines on either side, with these formations owing their origins in part or in whole to glacio-fluvial waters pushing debris to the sides of glaciers.
  • Ground moraines: Irregular sheets of till constitute ground moraines, forming deposits on the floor of a glacial valley.
  • Medial moraines: These moraines develop in the center of a glacial valley, flanked by lateral moraines. Distinguishing medial moraines from ground moraines can sometimes prove challenging. They form in the middle of two glaciers as a result of the merging of two lateral moraines, continuing as a single medial moraine.
  • Recessional moraines: These moraines traverse the landscape behind a terminal moraine. They emerge when a receding glacier pauses at specific points for an extended period before further movement.

Eskers

During the summer, as glaciers melt, water either flows across the ice surface, along the edges, or seeps through the ice via crevices. These waters form streams beneath the ice, coursing through a channel. The streams traverse the terrain, not within a valley carved into the ground, with ice serving as their banks. Within the glacial valley, boulders, blocks, and rock debris carried by the stream settle, forming a sinuous ridge known as an esker, which becomes visible when the ice eventually melts.

Outwash Plains

Upon reaching its lowest point and subsequently melting, a glacier deposits layers of rock debris, sand, clay, gravel, and other materials. This stratified expanse is known as an outwash plain.

Drumlins

Drumlins are elliptical, ridge-like formations composed of glacial till along with patches of gravel and sand. Typically, they measure around 1 kilometer in length and approximately 30 meters in height. The steeper end facing the glacier is termed the stoss end, while the opposite end is known as the tail. Drumlins serve as indicators of the direction of glacial movement.

Waves and Currents

Coastal phenomena represent the most dynamic and, consequently, the most impactful natural processes. The alterations observed along coasts primarily stem from the actions of waves. As waves crash, water exerts considerable force upon the shoreline, resulting in significant disturbance of sediments on the seabed. The persistent impact of these breaking waves has a profound effect on coastal areas. Tsunami waves and storm waves, in particular, induce more rapid and extensive transformations over brief periods compared to regular breaking waves.

The configuration of the land and seafloor notably influences coastal landforms, while the direction of coastal movement, whether towards the land (emerging) or away from it (submerging), further shapes the coastline.

Types of Coasts

High Rocky Coasts

  • Erosion features dominate high rocky coasts initially without depositional landforms.
  • Irregular coastlines show drowned river valleys, forming fjords, with steep hillsides descending into the water.
  • Powerful waves shape cliffs along high coasts, gradually creating wave-cut platforms.
  • Cliff materials break into smaller, rounded fragments, eventually deposited offshore.
  • Continued accumulation forms wave-built terraces over time.
  • Coastal erosion supplies material for the formation of beaches and bars parallel to the shore.
  • Submerged bars emerging above water become barrier bars, while those attached to bay headlands are known as spits.
  • Bars and spits can create lagoons by blocking bay entrances.
  • Lagoons gradually fill with land-derived sediments, leading to the development of coastal plains.

Low Sedimentary Coasts

  • Low sedimentary coasts witness the extension of river lengths through the development of coastal plains and deltas.
  • The coastline displays a generally smooth appearance, occasionally interrupted by the presence of lagoons and tidal creeks.
  • Depositional features take precedence over erosional ones along these coasts.
  • Breaking waves facilitate the movement of sediments, contributing to the formation of bars, spits, barrier bars, and lagoons.
  • Lagoons eventually transform into swamps, evolving into coastal plains over time.
  • Tsunamis and storms induce significant changes along these coasts, independent of sediment supply.
  • Deltas form along low sedimentary coasts, especially through the influence of large sediment-carrying rivers.
  • The east coast of India exemplifies a low sedimentary coast dominated by depositional features, while the west coast constitutes a high rocky retreating coast where erosional forms prevail.

Erosional Landforms

  • In areas where erosion is the primary coastal process, wave-cut cliffs and terraces are commonly observed formations.
  • Along the cliff base, one may find gently sloping or flat platforms covered in rock debris, known as wave-cut terraces, positioned above the average wave height.
  • The constant pounding of waves against the cliff base, coupled with the impact of rock debris, results in the formation of hollows, which gradually deepen and expand, eventually giving rise to sea caves.
  • Notably, a 90-meter sea cave is located on Loliem beach in Canacona, Goa, while the world’s most extensive cave, measuring 1.5 kilometers in length, is the Matainaka cave in New Zealand.
  • Resistant rock masses that appear as isolated, small island-like structures just off the shore, originally forming part of a cliff or hill, are referred to as sea stacks.
  • These aforementioned features are transient and tend to erode over time due to wave action, contributing to the development of narrow coastal plains. The influx of land-based deposits may lead to their coverage by alluvium or the accumulation of shingle or sand, eventually forming expansive beaches.

Depositional Landforms

Beach:

  • A beach refers to an extended expanse of sand, pebbles, and gravels deposited along the coastline. These sediments primarily originate from land carried by streams and rivers, or as a result of wave erosion. Despite their appearance of permanence, beaches are transient features, susceptible to seasonal fluctuations that can reduce them to narrow strips of coarse pebbles.

Notable Beaches:

  • Praia da Casino beach in Brazil holds the distinction of being the world’s longest beach, while Marina beach in Chennai ranks as the second longest beach globally.

Bars:

  • Bars represent stretches of sand deposition situated off the shoreline.

Barrier Bars:

  • The continual accumulation of sand onto the offshore bar leads to the formation of a barrier bar.

Spits:

  • Spits are formed when barrier bars become attached to one end of a bay or even to headlands/hills.

Lagoon:

  • The gradual extension of bars, barriers, and spits at the mouth of a bay leads to the transformation of the bay into a lagoon. Over time, the lagoon evolves into a wide coastal plain, as it gradually fills with sediments from the land and beach, aided by wind.

Tombolo:

  • A tombolo is a bar that connects an island with the coast.

Wind

  • Desert Dynamics:
    • The arid and desolate desert floors rapidly heat up, causing the air directly above to ascend swiftly with turbulence. Any obstruction in the path of this rising hot air results in the formation of whirlwinds, eddies, downdrafts, and updrafts. Additionally, winds swiftly travel across the desert floors, creating turbulence when obstructed. Destructive storm winds also occur in these regions.
  • Impact of Winds:
    • Wind activities lead to deflation, abrasion, and impact. Deflation involves the lifting and removal of dust and smaller particles from the surface of rocks. Sand and silt, during transportation, effectively abrade the land surface. Impact refers to the forceful momentum generated when sand is blown into or against a rock surface.
  • Rainfall in Arid Regions:
    • While rainfall is scarce in arid regions, brief periods of torrential rain occasionally occur. The absence of vegetation exposes desert rocks to rapid chemical and mechanical weathering due to drastic diurnal temperature fluctuations, accelerating their decay. Torrential rains efficiently remove the resulting weathered debris. Consequently, weathered materials in the deserts are mobilized not only by wind but also by rain (sheet wash). General mass erosion primarily occurs through sheet floods, while wind carries fine particles.

Erosional Landforms

Pediplains:

Pediplains are expansive, low-lying, and featureless plains formed in deserts when wind activities significantly reduce high relief structures.

Mushroom, Table, and Pedestal Rocks:

In desert environments, wind-driven sand and rock particles cause greater erosion in the lower sections of rocks compared to their tops, resulting in the formation of distinct rock formations. These include pillar-like structures resembling mushrooms, with narrow columns and broad upper surfaces. Some formations exhibit broad, table-like tops, while others appear as pedestals.

Deflation Hollows:

Deflation hollows refer to shallow depressions formed by persistent wind movement, leading to the removal of surface material.

Playas:

Playas emerge in basin landscapes surrounded by mountains and hills, where drainage flows toward the basin center. Over time, gradual sediment deposition from the basin margins gives rise to a nearly level plain at the basin center. When water accumulates, this plain is submerged under a shallow water body, resulting in the formation of “playas.” These shallow lakes often contain significant salt deposits due to short-lived water retention, primarily driven by evaporation. A playa plain covered in salt deposits is known as alkali flats.

Depositional Landforms

Sand Dunes:

Dry, hot deserts serve as ideal environments for the formation of sand dunes. Depending on their shape, various types of sand dunes exist, including:

  • Barchans:
    • Barchans represent one of the iconic forms of desert landforms. These crescent-shaped dunes feature points or wings pointing away from the direction of the prevailing wind.
  • Parabolic Dunes:
    • Reversed barchans, known as parabolic dunes, have a wind direction similar to that of barchans. They form when sand surfaces are partially covered with vegetation.
  • Seif Dunes:
    • Seif dunes resemble barchans but possess only one wing or point. They develop when there is a shift in wind conditions, with their elongated wings capable of growing to significant lengths and heights.
  • Longitudinal Dunes:
    • Longitudinal dunes appear as lengthy ridges of considerable length but are relatively low in height. These dunes form in areas with poor sand supply and constant wind direction.
  • Transverse Dunes:
    • Formed when the wind direction remains constant and the sand source is an elongated feature perpendicular to the wind, transverse dunes represent another type of sand dune.

FAQs for Landform

Q. What landforms are formed by rivers?

A. Rivers can form various landforms, including river valleys, river deltas, canyons, and alluvial plains. These landforms are created through the erosion and deposition of sediment by flowing water.

Q. How landforms are formed?

A. Landforms are created through various geological processes such as erosion, deposition, volcanic activity, tectonic plate movement, and weathering. These processes shape the Earth’s surface over millions of years.

Q. How many landforms are there in India?

A. India boasts a diverse range of landforms, including mountains (Himalayas), plateaus (Deccan Plateau), plains (Indo-Gangetic Plain), deserts (Thar Desert), and coastal areas. The specific number of landforms may vary based on classification criteria.

Q. How many major landforms are there?

A. There are several major landforms on Earth, broadly categorized into mountains, plateaus, plains, hills, deserts, and coastal areas. The exact number can vary depending on how they are classified.

Q. How landforms are formed class 6?

A. In a class 6 geography curriculum, students typically learn about landform formation through natural processes such as erosion, weathering, and tectonic plate movement. They also study specific landforms like mountains, valleys, and plains.

Q. How many landforms are there on Earth?

A. Earth’s landforms are incredibly diverse and numerous. While it’s challenging to determine an exact number, they can be categorized into various types, including mountains, valleys, plateaus, plains, deserts, and more.

Q. Where are landforms found?

A. Landforms are found all over the Earth’s surface. They can be observed on every continent, beneath the oceans, and even on the seafloor. They vary in size, shape, and characteristics depending on their location.

Q. Where are landforms found class 7?

In a class 7 geography curriculum, students learn about the distribution of landforms around the world. They study how landforms are distributed across continents and within specific regions.

Q. Which landform separates Europe from Asia?

A. The Ural Mountains are often considered the traditional boundary separating Europe and Asia. This geological feature serves as a natural divide between the two continents.

Q. Why are landforms important to us?

A. Landforms are essential because they influence climate, vegetation, and human settlement patterns. They also play a crucial role in shaping the Earth’s surface and can impact various natural processes, including water flow and erosion.

Q. Landforms UPSC

A. The UPSC (Union Public Service Commission) examination may include questions related to landforms in its geography and environmental science papers. These questions may cover various aspects of landforms and their significance.

Q. Wind landforms UPSC

A. The UPSC examination may include questions about landforms created by wind erosion and deposition processes, such as sand dunes, yardangs, and deflation basins.

Q. Types of landforms UPSC

A. The UPSC examination may require candidates to identify and describe various types of landforms, including mountains, plateaus, plains, and coastal features.

Q. Landforms UPSC questions

A. Candidates preparing for the UPSC examination often seek practice questions related to landforms to test their knowledge and preparedness for the geography section of the exam.

Q. Evolution of landforms UPSC

A. Questions related to the geological processes and time scales involved in the formation and evolution of landforms may be asked in UPSC geography exams. These questions may pertain to the changing Earth’s surface over geological time.

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