Evaluate the policies of Lord Curzon and their long-term implications on the national movements.

Evaluate the policies of Lord Curzon and their long-term implications on the national movements. (Answer in 150 words) 10


  • Introduction:
    • Offer a historical overview, outlining the timeline of events and briefly introducing the key circumstances surrounding his ascension to power.
  • Body:
    • Examine the diverse policies he enacted, delving into their specific details and implications. Elaborate on how these policies influenced the social, political, and economic landscape of India, analyzing their immediate and long-term effects.
  • Conclusion:
    • Summarize how these policies were far-reaching, fostering a sense of unity and enthusiasm among the Indian populace. Offer remarks on the impact of the policies in terms of galvanizing the nation and leaving a lasting impression on the collective consciousness of the Indian people.


Governor-General Lord Curzon was known for his ambitious rule, characterized by policies often labeled as reactionary due to their narrow focus on immediate events rather than long-term foresight. One such contentious measure was the partition of the Bengal Presidency in 1905, which garnered widespread criticism.


Policies of Curzon

  • Imperialism: Known for his staunch imperialist beliefs and deep-seated racism, Lord Curzon staunchly upheld Britain’s “civilizing mission.” He displayed intolerance towards Indian political aspirations, aiming to stifle the national movement. Notably, he infamously declared, “Congress is tottering to its fall, and one of my greatest ambitions while in India is to assist it to a peaceful demise.”
  • Calcutta Corporation Act, 1899: This Act aimed to curtail Indian self-governance by reducing the number of elected representatives in the Calcutta Corporation. It primarily served the interests of the European business community, which had complained about the delays in license grants.
  • University Act, 1904: Ostensibly introduced to elevate the standard of education, the Act reduced the count of elected senate members, sparking a nationwide movement in protest.
  • Bengal Partition, 1905: Under the guise of administrative convenience, Bengal was split into two provinces, but the true motive was to suppress the surging nationalism among Bengalis. Curzon sought to sow discord along religious lines, thus fostering division.

Long-Term Impact of Policies of Curzon

  • Curzon’s measures to suppress political aspirations led to growing discontent and a clash with the educated middle-class nationalists.
  • The Swadeshi movement, originating in Bengal in 1905, advocated a boycott of British goods and the promotion of indigenous products. It marked one of the earliest large-scale movements since the 1857 revolt. Subsequently, movements led by Gandhi, such as Non-Cooperation, were seen as extensions of the Swadeshi movement.
  • Initially following moderate lines, the movement later fell under the sway of extremists, evolving into a nationwide anti-colonial movement. Figures such as Tilak, Bipin Pal, and Aurobindo Ghose rose to prominence within the Congress.
  • Subsequently, several revolutionary organizations, including Jugantar, emerged, actively participating in anti-colonial activities and fostering a sense of nationalism among the youth.


Curzon’s partition of Bengal and authoritarian conduct fueled the flames of the national movement. Contrary to his intentions, his policies inadvertently bolstered and broadened the scope of nationalism. Furthermore, they inadvertently amplified the influence of extremists and revolutionaries who rejected the idea of passive pleading and petitioning.

To complete UPSC Polity Notes, Click Here

Join our Official Telegram Channel HERE
Subscribe to our YouTube Channel HERE
Follow our Instagram ID HERE

Similar Posts

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *