Ecology and EnvironmentEnvironment, Habitat and EcosystemEnvironment
Habitat vs Environment
Classification of Ecosystems
Difference Between Environment and Ecosystem
Difference Between Environment and Ecology
Difference Between Ecology and Ecosystem
Components of an Ecosystem – Abiotic and Biotic
Abiotic Components
Biotic Components
Primary Producers – Autotrophs
Consumers – Heterotrophs or Phagotrophs
Ecology – Principles and OrganizationsLevels of Organizations in Ecology – Individual and Species, Population, Community, Ecosystem, Biome, Ecotone, Biosphere
Types of Niche
Principles of Ecology – Adaptation, Variation, Speciation, Mutation, Natural Selection, Evolution, Extinction
Functions of an Ecosystem – Succession and HomeostasisEcological Succession
Stages in Ecological Succession – Primary and Secondary
Functions of an Ecosystem – Trophic LevelsFood Chain – Grazing and Detritus
Food Web
Types of Biotic Interactions in a Food Web
Ecological Pyramids, Types and Limitations
Biomagnification – Pollutants and Trophic Level
Functions of an Ecosystem – Biogeochemical CyclingTypes of Nutrient Cycles – Carbon, Nitrogen, Sulphur, Water, Phosphorus, Methane
Nutrient Cycling
Nitrogen Fixing – N2 to Ammonia (NH3)
Nitrification – Ammonia to Nitrites and Nitrates
Ammonification – Urea, Uric Acid to NH3 to Nitrite
Denitrification – Nitrate to Nitrogen
Methane Emissions and Sink
Natural EcosystemsTerrestrial Ecosystems or Biomes
Tundra Biome
Taiga or Boreal Biome
Temperate Deciduous Biome (North-Western Europe – British Type Climate)
Temperate Rainforest Biome
Sub-Tropical Deciduous Biome in Eastern China, South-eastern USA
Steppe or Temperate Grassland Biome
Temperate Deciduous Biome (Mediterranean)
Tropical Deciduous Biome (Monsoon Climate)
Savanna or Tropical Wet and Dry Biome
Tropical Rainforest Biome
Desert Biome
Aquatic EcosystemsAquatic Organisms
Factors Limiting the Productivity
Natural Ecosystem Services and GoodsQuantifying the Economic Value of Natural Ecosystems (Ecosystem valuation)
The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB)
Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES)
Ecosystem Services by Seagrass
Ecosystem Services by Seaweed
Wetland EcosystemDifferences Between Wetlands and Lakes
Estuarine Wetland Ecosystem
Differences between Lagoon and Estuary
Importance of Estuaries
Estuarine Vegetation
Indian Estuarine Ecosystem
Threats Faced by the Estuarine Ecosystem
Adaptive Mechanism of Mangroves
Mangroves in India
Global Status of Mangrove Cover
Importance of mangroves
Threats to Mangroves
Importance of Wetlands
Reasons for the Depletion of Wetlands
Mitigation of Wetland Destruction
Measures to Protect Wetlands of India
National Plan for Conservation of Aquatic Eco-systems (NPCA)
Wetlands (Conservation-Management) Rules 2010
Wetlands (Conservation-Management) Rules 2017
Measures to Protect Global Wetlands
Ramsar Convention on Wetlands
Ramsar Site
Biodiversity and Loss of BiodiversityTerms Related to Biodiversity
Biodiversity – Genetic, Species and Ecological
Species Types
Biodiversity of India
Biomes, Biogeographic Zones and Provinces
Biodiversity Hot Spots
Biodiversity Hotspots in India
Loss of Biodiversity
The Extent of Biodiversity Loss as per IPBES Report
Living Planet Report 2022
The State of the World’s Birds
Causes Behind Biodiversity Loss
Habitat Loss and Fragmentation
Alien Species Invasions
Species Extinction
Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO/Transgenic Organisms)
Trade in Wildlife
Pollution and Climate Change
Consequences of Loss of Biodiversity
Affects Livelihood
Human-animal Conflict
Increased Zoonosis due to Habitat Loss
Adverse Changes to Biotic Interactions
Biodiversity ConservationIn situ conservation
Reserved and Protected Forests
Wildlife Sanctuaries or Wildlife Refuges
National Park
Biosphere Reserve
Eco-Sensitive Zones (ESZs)
Conservation Reserves
Community Reserves
Sacred Groves
Ex Situ Conservation
National Initiatives
Wildlife Mitigation Measures – Eco-Bridges
Preservation of the Western and Eastern Ghats
Environment Movements
Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety
Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit-sharing
International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (PGRFA)
Aichi Biodiversity Targets
COP-15 of the UN CBD
Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework
Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework
Global Partnership on Forest and Landscape Restoration (GPFLR)
World Forestry Congress and Seoul Declaration
Initiatives By The UN
Wildlife ConservationWildlife (Protection) Act, 1972
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)
19th Conference of the Parties to CITES (CoP19)
Policies/Laws Concerning CITES in India
International Wildlife Conservation Organisation – MIKE, TRAFFIC, CAWT
Regulating Trade in Wildlife and Policies Regulating Foreign Trade
Enforcement: Wildlife Crime Control Bureau
Convention on Migratory Species (CMS)
The 13th Conference of the Parties to CMS (CoP13)
International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)
IUCN Red List or Red Data List or Red Book
BirdLife International (BI)
Tiger Conservation and Project Tiger – NTCA, Tiger Corridors, Core-Buffer Zones, Tiger Census
Challenges to Tiger Conservation
National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA)
International Efforts Towards Tiger and Snow Leopard Conservation
The Global Tiger Initiative, St. Petersburg Declaration, TX2 and Tiger Conservation Excellence Award
Project Snow Leopard
Reintroduction of Cheetahs in India – Why Kuno NP?
Cheetah vs Leopard vs Jaguar
Conservation of Lions – Asiatic Lion, Project Lion
Conservation of Elephants – Project Elephant, Elephant Corridor
Asian Elephant vs African Elephant and African Forest Elephant vs African Savanna (Bush) Elephant
Conservation of Great One-Horned Rhino – World Rhino Species, 
India’s Greater One-Horned Rhinoceros – India Rhino Vision (IRV) 2020
Conservation of the Indian Dolphins – Gangetic, Indus, Irrawaddy Dolphins
Indian Crocodile Species – Crocodile vs Alligator vs Gharial
Conservation of India Crocodile Species – Indian Crocodile Conservation Project
Conservation of Turtles(Batagur, Nissilonia & Others) – Sea Turtle Conservation Project
India & Non Indian Vultures Species – Conservation of Indian Vultures
Diclofenac and Indian Vulture Crisis – Steps Taken by The Government
Project Hangul (Kashmiri Stag)
Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats
Animal Welfare Board of India
National Wildlife Action Plan (NWAP) 2017-2031
National Action Plan for Conservation of Migratory Birds (2018-2023)
Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS)
International Whaling Commission (IWC)
World Wildlife Fund for Nature (WWF)
Green Good Deeds Initiative
India State of Forest Report 2021 – Major Terms/Definitions, Forest-Tree cover, 
Recorded Forest Area (RFA), Tress Outside Forests (TOF), Fire Proneness, Mangrove Cover
Forest Survey of India (FSI)
Criticism of FSI’s approach and ISFR
National Forest Inventory, Growing Stock, Bamboo Resources, Carbon Stock in India’s Forests
Forest Types of India
Global Forest Resources Assessment 2020 – Forest Area of Top 5 Countries In 2020
GFRA and India
Policies – National Forest Policy 1988, Draft National Forest Policy 2018
Afforestation Programmes – National Afforestation Programme (NAP), Compensatory Afforestation (CA), Aerial Seeding for Reforestation
Green Credit Scheme
Air Pollution: Causes and Air PollutantsPollution – Air Pollution(Major Causes, Classification of Air Pollutants)
Other Pollutants – Particulate Pollutants, Fly ash, Nanoparticles (NPs), Black Carbon (Soot)
Carbon Monoxide (CO), Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Ozone (O3), Nitrogen Oxides(NOx),Sulphur dioxide (SO2), Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), Benzene, 
Stratospheric Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS)
Air Pollution: Effects and Control Measures, Effects of Air Pollution, Prevention and Control of Air Pollution
Smog (Smoke + Fog),  Aerosols and their Impact on Monsoon Rainfall
Acid Rain
Control of Industrial Pollution, Pollution Index to Control Industrial Pollution, 
Ozone Depletion – Measures to Regulate Ozone-Depleting Substances (ODS), Vienna Convention and Montreal Protocol, Kigali Amendment to Montreal Protocol 2016
Vienna Convention
Montreal Protocol
Coal Gasification 
Measures to Control Vehicular Pollution in India
National Clean Air Program (NCAP) – Measures to Control Air Pollution in NCR
National Air Quality Monitoring Programme
National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)
SAFAR System for Monitoring Air Pollutants
National Air Quality Index (AQI)
Radioactive PollutionRadioactive Pollution – Ionising & Non Ionising Accidents , Safe Disposal of Nuclear Wastes
Water PollutionWater Pollution: Causes, Effects & Control Measures
Measuring Pollution Load in Water
Effects of Water Pollution – Industrial Wastes, Thermal and Radiation Pollution, Mining. Groundwater and Drinking Water Contamination, Sewage Water, Agricultural Sources, Invasive Aquatic Species
Pollution in River Ganga
Marine Pollution: Oil Spills and Plastic
Effects of Water Pollution – Human Health, Environment, Aquatic Ecosystem
Eutrophication and Algal Blooms, Dead Zones
Ageing of Lakes
Blue Tide
Water Pollution Control Measures – Bioremediation, Riparian buffers for Mitigation of Eutrophication, Sewage Water Treatment for Domestic Use, Bio-Toilets
Water Pollution Control Measures in India and Indian River Systems
Major River Conservation Initiatives
Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM)
National Water Quality Monitoring Programme
Measures to Curb Marine Pollution
Convention on Dumping of Wastes at Sea
The United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)
International Maritime Organization (IMO)
Plastic PollutionPlastic Pollution, Solid, Hazardous and E-Waste
Major Plastics in Use – Microplastics, Microbeads & Nanoplastics & their effects.
Plastic Waste Management Rules, 2016
NITI Aayog’s Report on Alternatives to Plastics
Solid Wastes – Sources, Treatment and Disposal, Measures to Manage
Solid Waste Management Rules (2016)
Bio-Medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 2016
Hazardous Waste – Regulating, Basel Convention
Hazardous Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules, 2016
Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) – Stockholm Convention
Rotterdam Convention on Prior Informed Consent
Joint meetings of Basel, Rotterdam, and Stockholm Conventions
Hong Kong Convention on Recycling of Ships and Recycling of Ships Act, 2019
Regulatory Measures by India
Steel Scrap Recycling Policy
Heavy Metals – Lead, Mercury, Cadmium, Chromium, Other Heavy Metals
Electronic waste (E-Waste) – Generation and Recycling and E-Waste Management Rules, 2016
Highly Polluting Industries (HPIs)Major Polluting Industries – Thermal PowerPlants, Iron and Steel, Cement, Cu Smelting, Zinc/Lead, Aluminium, Fertiliser, Paper&Pulp,Sugar, Tanneries, Petroleum Refining & Petrochemicals
Industrial Emissions and Effluents Monitoring
Pollutants From HPIs
Land Degradation & DesertificationMajor Causes for Land Degradation – Deforestation, Soil Salinity and Soil Alkalinity, Desertification,Waterlogging, 
Causes of Deforestation
Faulty Methods of Agriculture
Wind Erosion, Water Erosion, Sea Erosion in India
Desertification – United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), UNCCD Global Land Outlook Report, Land Degradation Neutrality (LDN) initiative
Soil Conservation
Climate ChangeClimate Change – Causes, Impacts & Mitigation
Climate Change (CC) and Global Warming – History & its impact
Greenhouse effect – Greenhouse Gases
Global Warming Potential & Lifetime of GHGs – Carbon Dioxide, Ozone, Water Vapor, Methane, Nitrous Oxide, Black Carbon, Fluorinated Gases, Carbon Monoxide
Carbon Footprint – Various Sector, State Wise Carbon Emission
Climate Sensitivity – Feedbacks Drive Uncertainty
Current State of Emissions – IEA World Energy Outlook Recent Report, Climate Change Performance Index,  Environmental Performance Index (EPI)
Climate Change Mitigation Measures – Clean coal technology, Geoengineering, Climate Smart Cities, Transition to Green Economy
Carbon Capture and Storage
Carbon Sink
Carbon Sequestration
Deterioration of Carbon sinks
Climate Migrants
Coral Reefs – Ideal Conditions, Corals and Zooxanthellae, Causes of Coral Bleaching
Australia’s Great Barrier Reef
Biorock Technology for Coral Restoration
Increased Frequency and Severity of Heat Waves – Urban Heat Islands, Marine Heat Waves, Wildfires
Shrinking Cryosphere – Arctic Amplification (PA), Sea Level Change, 
Tropical Cyclones are Becoming More Severe
Coal Bed Methane
IPCC ReportsIntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) – IPCC Reports, IPCC Special Reports, IPCC Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate (SROCC)
International Environmental Conventions, NGOs and LawsUnited Nations Conference on the Human Environment (1972) – Stockholm Declaration
UN Environment Programme (UNEP) – Agencies, Global Environment Facility (GEF)
UNCED/Earth Summit, Rio De Janeiro – Landmark Agreements and High-level Political Forum on Sustainable Development (HLPF)
The History of SDGs – Brundtland Commission, UNCED or Earth Summit 1992, Rio De Janeiro Brazil
Post UNCED – Rio+10 (2002) or Earth Summit 2002, Rio+20 (2012) or Earth Summit 2012, UN Agenda 2030 – Sustainable Development Goals
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) – COP, Criticism
Kyoto Protocol (COP 3; UNFCCC 1997) – Common but Differentiated Responsibilities, Doha Amendment, Flexible Market Mechanisms, Criticisms
UNFCCC Summits Post Kyoto
Proposed: Carbon Tax as An Alternative to Carbon Trading
Carbon Tax
Summits Before and after Paris Summit 2015
Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC) and Major Contentions, 
India’s INDC objectives – Funds required to meet India’s INDC
Paris Agreement – Paris 2015 (COP 21; CMP 11)
Climate Neutral Now
China-U.S. Deal on Emission Cuts
Net Zero Emissions and Carbon Neutrality
How Can Net Zero Emissions Be Achieved? – India’s Objection to Net Zero
European Green New Deal
UNEP Emissions Gap Report
The Glasgow Climate Pact
Carbon Markets
COP 26 – Major Outcomes of COP26, India at COP26, 
COP27 – LiFE (Lifestyle for Environment), Loss and Damage Fund, Methane Alert and Response System (MARS), 
Illegal Wildlife Trade (IWT) and Climate Change
Carbon Border Tax, Long-Term Low-Emission Development Strategy
UN-REDD and REDD+ – Forest Carbon Partnership Facility
Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC)
National Environmental LegislationsPollution Related Laws
The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act of 1974 and Amendment, 1988
The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act of 1981 and amendment, 1987
Environment (Protection) Act of 1986 – Major Provisions
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) – 2016, Amendment 2020
Wild Life (Protection) Act of 1972 – Delineation of Powers, NBWL
Central Zoo Authority
Wild Life (Protection) Amendment Bill, 2022
Forest Conservation and BiodiversityIndian Forest Act 1927 (IFA, 1927)
Forest (Conservation) Act 1980 (FCA, 1980)
Forest Rights Act, 2006 (FRA 2006)
Critical Wildlife Habitats (CWH)
Biodiversity Act 2002 and Biological Diversity Amendment Bill 2021
National Green Tribunal Act, 2010 – Development vs Conservation
Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) Rules – 2011, 2019
Activities Permitted in the CRZ of Certain Beaches and Issues with the CRZ rules 
Rules for Hazardous Microorganisms/Genetically Engineered Organisms or Cells 1989
Protection Against Chemical Disasters – Strict vs Absolute Liability Principle, Issues
Pesticide Regulatory Regime in India – Pesticides Management Bill 2020, Anupam Verma Committee
India’s National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC)
National Solar Mission (JNNSM)
National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency
National Mission on Sustainable Habitat
National Water Mission (NWM) Mission
National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem (NMSHE)
National Mission for A Green India
National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture
National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change (NMSKCC)
Sustainable Alternative Towards Affordable Transportation (SATAT- Initiative)
Green Revolution & Sustainable Agricultural PracticesGreen Revolution
India’s First and Second Green Revolution and Green Revolution in Eastern India
Evergreen Revolution
The Concept of Sustainable Agriculture and Sustainable Practises for Natural Farming & Agriculture
Nutrient Management – Macronutrients and Micronutrients for Plants
Fertilizer Subsidies and Consequences
Organic Farming – Bio – Fertilizers, Present Status and Initiatives
Natural Farming – Benefits, Challenges, Zero-Budget Natural Farming (ZBNF) and Bharatiya Prakritik Krishi Paddhati (BPKP) Scheme,
Organic Farming vs. Natural Farming (ZBNF)
Modern Agricultural Practices – Precision Farming, Protected Cultivation of Horticulture Crops
Genetically Modified Organism (GMO)
Various Agricultural Activities and Revolutions in Agriculture
MiscellaneousCurrent Affairs
EnergySources of Energy, Renewables and Energy Conservation
Conventional and Non-Conventional Sources of Energy
Major Energy Sources – Cleaner Energy and Calorific Value of Various Sources of Energy
Total Installed Power Capacity in India
World Energy Outlook and India Energy Outlook Report 2022
Solar Energy – International Solar Alliance (ISA), One Sun One World One Grid (OSOWOG), Steps to Increase, Issues
Wind Energy – Major Wind Farms, Offshore Wind Energy, Issues and Challenges
Wind vs Solar
Onshore vs Offshore
Biofuel – Generation, Advantages, Disadvantages
National Policy on Biofuels 2018
Hydrogen Economy – Current Status, Green Hydrogen, Hydrogen Fuel Cell, National Hydrogen Mission
Challenges Faced by Renewable Energy – Smart Grid, Critical Minerals
Measures to Boost Renewable Energy – IREDA, Green Bonds
Energy Conservation Measures – Energy Conservation Act 2001, Energy Conservation (Amendment) Bill, 2022
Water Conservation – Water Scarcity, Water Stress and Water Risk, India’s Water Situation
Measures by the Government – CGWB, CWC, NAMMP, Atal Jal, Jal Shakti Abhiyan, Jal Jeevan Mission, Retrieving data. Jal, Jeevan, Hariyali Mission, BIS, National Hydrology Project
Recommended Conservation Measures – Clean Water Sacturies, Sponge City Concept
Droughts – Concept, Drought Management (India and International)
Major Species and Their Conservation Status – Invasive SpeciesMammals – Critically Endangered (CR), Endangered (EN), Vulnerable (VU), Near Threatened (NT), Least Concern (LC)
Birds – Critically Endangered (CR), Endangered (EN), Vulnerable (VU), Near Threatened (NT), Least Concern (LC)
Fish – Critically Endangered (CR)
Others – Amphibians, Reptiles, Spiders, Insects, Plants
Invasive Species – Plant, Fish and Amphibian
Protected AreasNational Parks of India and Major Wildlife Sanctuaries
Community and Conservation Reserves
Tiger Reserves of India and Proposed
Elephant Reserves of India
Ramsar Sites of India
Biosphere Reserves – Concept, Reserves of India, Flora and Fauna
Natural World Heritage Sites in India
Biodiversity Heritage Site (BHS) of India
Tiger, Leopard, and Elephant population by state
Chapter NoChapter Name
Chapter 1Basic Concepts Of Ecosystem
Chapter 2Unique Ecosystems- Degradation And Management
Chapter 3Biodiversity
Chapter 4Environment Pollution And Control
Chapter 5Climate Change And Associated Issues
Chapter 6Environment Degradation And Issues
Chapter 7Mining And Environment Issues
Chapter 8Environment Impact Assessment
Chapter 9Environmental Governance- National Legislation
Chapter 10International Conventions