Describe the characteristics and types of primary rocks. (Answer in 150 words ) 10M

Igneous rocks earn the name “primary rocks” because they are the first to form in the rock cycle, and they do not contain any organic remains. They develop from hot, molten rock that cools and solidifies.

Based on the location where the molten rock solidifies, they can be classified into two types:

Intrusive Igneous Rocks:

These rocks form when magma is trapped deep within the Earth’s surface, where it cools slowly over thousands or millions of years until it solidifies. The prolonged cooling time allows the individual mineral grains to grow to a relatively large size, creating a coarse-grained texture. Examples include Diabase, Granite, Pegmatite, and Peridotite.

Extrusive Igneous Rocks:

These rocks are created when magma emerges and cools above or near the Earth’s surface. They are produced at erupting volcanoes, where molten rock erupts on the surface, cools, and solidifies almost immediately when it encounters the relatively cool temperature of the atmosphere. The quick cooling results in mineral crystals having little time to grow, producing a very fine-grained or even glassy texture. Often, hot gas bubbles are trapped in the quenched lava, forming a bubbly, vesicular texture. Examples include Basalt, Pumice, Obsidian, and Andesite.

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