Agricultural Revolutions in India - UPSC Notes

Agricultural Revolutions in India – UPSC Notes – Indian Geography

This article will update you with important Agricultural Revolutions that occurred in India. Along with the list of agricultural revolutions in India, you will also learn about the products and people associated with these revolutions.

As per the exam point of view, the agricultural revolutions are important for the general awareness section of various competitive exams.

Candidates preparing for UPSC exam must know that the agricultural revolution is covered in the Static GK section of the exam.

Revolutions in Agriculture

Agricultural revolution refers to the significant changes in agriculture when there are inventions, discoveries, or new technologies implemented. These revolutions change the ways of production and increase the production rate.

Various agricultural revolutions have occurred in India and have marked the beginning of a completely new era in the agricultural field. The agricultural revolutions helped Indian agriculture grow exponentially and created new opportunities.

It is important for candidates preparing for any competitive exams like Bank, RRB, SSC, or any other Government exams to be aware of the new inventions taking place in the agricultural field. Therefore, we have compiled a list of revolutions in agriculture along with the product it relates to and the person who coined these revolutions.

List of Agricultural Revolutions in India

S.NoNamePioneer of the RevolutionMain Focus and ObjectiveWhen StartedAchievementsChallenges that Remain
1Green RevolutionM.S. SwaminathanFood Grains Production1960sBoosted food grain yieldsSustainable water and land use
2White RevolutionVerghese KurienMilk Production1970sHigher milk productionEnsuring fair returns for dairy farmers
3Blue RevolutionDr. Arun KrishnanFish Production1970sIncreased fish productionOverfishing and coastal habitat degradation
4Yellow RevolutionSam PitrodaOilseed Production, Mustard & SunflowerLate 1980sBoosted oilseed productionEnhancing productivity sustainably
5Silver RevolutionIndira GandhiEgg Production, Poultry Production1980sExpansion of egg and poultry industriesDisease management and animal welfare
6Grey RevolutionFertilizers1970sIncreased fertilizer usageBalancing chemical use and soil health
7Pink RevolutionDurgesh PatelOnion, Pharmaceuticals, Prawn Production1990sImproved production in respective areasQuality control and market fluctuations
8Brown RevolutionLeather, Cocoa, Non-Conventional ProductsDiversified agricultural productsEnsuring sustainability and ethical practices
9Round RevolutionPotato Production1990sGrowth in potato cultivationStorage and distribution challenges
10Golden RevolutionNirpakh TutejFruits, Honey, Horticulture Development1990sGrowth in horticultural productsPost-harvest losses and supply chain issues
11Protein RevolutionCoined by Narendra Modi and Arun JaitleyHigher Production through TechnologyCoined (2020)Increased food productionEnsuring equitable access to technology
12Silver Fiber RevolutionCotton ProductionEnhanced cotton yield and qualityPest resistance and sustainability
13Red RevolutionVishal TewariMeat Production, Tomato ProductionIncreased meat and tomato productionQuality assurance and resource use
14Black RevolutionPetroleum Product ProductionReduced dependency on importsManaging environmental impacts
15Evergreen RevolutionIntegration of ecological principlesImproved sustainability of agricultureSpreading awareness and adoption
16Golden Fiber RevolutionJute ProductionEnhanced jute productionMarket competition and synthetic materials.

Highlights of Agricultural Revolutions

Black Revolution: The Government aimed to increase petroleum production by accelerating ethanol production and blending it with petrol to produce biodiesel. Ethanol, a renewable energy source, is a by-product of sugar production from molasses. Blending ethanol with petrol has been practiced in the USA and Brazil for over 70 years. This blending is environment-friendly, reducing pollutants and providing better returns to farmers while supplementing scarce hydrocarbon resources.

Pink Revolution: The period of the Pink Revolution witnessed a boom in meat export and production in India, signifying a technological revolution in the poultry and meat processing sector. This revolution signifies significant advancements in these industries.

Grey Revolution: This revolution relates to the increased production of fertilizers. It reflects on the potential drawbacks of the Green Revolution, highlighting the importance of understanding and managing agricultural technology responsibly.

White Revolution: Led by Verghese Kurien, the White Revolution transformed India into the world’s largest milk producer through initiatives like Operation Flood. This revolution revolutionized dairy farming and contributed significantly to India’s economy.

Operation Greens: Similar to Operation Flood, Operation Greens aims to replicate the success of the White Revolution, this time focusing on fruits and vegetables, particularly tomato, onion, and potato. Launched in the Union budget 2018-2019, it seeks to bolster the nation’s agricultural sector.

Yellow Revolution: India achieved self-sufficiency and became a net exporter in the oilseed sector during the Yellow Revolution, marking a significant milestone from being a net importer. This period saw a record production of 25 million tonnes of oilseeds annually.

Green Revolution: The Green Revolution of the early 1960s revolutionized Indian agriculture through the introduction of high-yielding seed varieties and improved agronomic technology, addressing the nation’s poor agricultural productivity.

Silver Revolution: Witnessing a significant increase in egg production, the Silver Revolution era was characterized by advancements in medical science and nutrition for poultry, leading to higher production rates.

Golden Revolution: Between 1991 and 2003, India witnessed the Golden Revolution, becoming a world leader in fruit production, providing sustainable livelihoods and nutritional options.

Brown Revolution: Focused on meeting the demand for environmentally-friendly coffee from developed nations, the Brown Revolution emphasizes socially responsible coffee cultivation, particularly in Visakhapatnam’s tribal areas.

Blue Revolution: Marking the emergence of aquaculture as a highly productive agricultural activity, the Blue Revolution significantly transformed the Indian agricultural landscape.

Golden Fiber Revolution: This revolution pertains to jute production, which became a vital raw material during the industrial revolution. Processed jute continues to be used for making strong threads and various jute products.


The phrase “agricultural revolution” denotes significant transformations in agriculture driven by innovations, discoveries, or new technology. These revolutions reshape industry practices and improve output rates. India has witnessed several agricultural revolutions, marking the dawn of a new era in agriculture. These revolutions have propelled Indian agriculture forward, unveiling fresh opportunities for growth and development.

FAQs on Agricultural Revolutions in India

1. How many revolutions are there in agriculture?

There are several agricultural revolutions, each focusing on different aspects of agricultural development and productivity. These revolutions cover a wide range of areas such as food grains, milk production, fish production, oilseed production, poultry, and more.

2. What was the first agricultural revolution in India?

The Green Revolution is considered the first significant agricultural revolution in India. It started in the early 1960s and aimed to address poor agricultural productivity by introducing high-yielding seed varieties and improved agronomic technology.

3. Who is the father of Grey Revolution?

The Grey Revolution in India, which focused on increased fertilizer production, doesn’t have a specific individual credited as its “father.” It is generally associated with the implications and challenges arising from the Green Revolution, highlighting the importance of responsible agricultural practices.

4. Who is the father of Pink Revolution?

Durgesh Patel is often referred to as the father of the Pink Revolution in India. This revolution denotes advancements in the poultry and meat processing sector, leading to increased production and export of meat products.

5. Who is the father of Yellow Revolution?

Sam Pitroda is credited as the father of the Yellow Revolution in India. This revolution focused on boosting oilseed production, particularly mustard and sunflower, leading India from being a net importer to a self-sufficient and net exporter in this sector.

6. Who is the father of Green Revolution?

M.S. Swaminathan is often referred to as the father of the Green Revolution in India. His contributions to agricultural research and development, particularly in increasing food grain yields through improved technologies, were instrumental in launching the Green Revolution.

7. Who is the father of Brown Revolution?

The Brown Revolution, emphasizing environmentally-friendly coffee cultivation, doesn’t have a specific individual credited as its “father.” It focuses on socially responsible and sustainable practices, particularly in coffee cultivation in areas like Visakhapatnam’s tribal regions.

8. What is Rainbow Revolution?

The Rainbow Revolution is a concept that encompasses various agricultural revolutions collectively. It symbolizes the diverse spectrum of agricultural advancements and initiatives aimed at improving productivity, sustainability, and socio-economic development across different sectors of agriculture.

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