Account for the present location of iron and steel industries away from the source of raw material, by giving examples.

Account for the present location of iron and steel industries away from the source of raw material, by giving examples. (Answer in 150 words) 10


  • Introduction
    • Begin by briefly examining the key location determinants crucial to the iron and steel industries.
    • Evaluate how proximity to raw materials, energy sources, transportation networks, and market demand plays a pivotal role in the industry’s geographical placement.
  • Body
    • Then, explore the contemporary trends in the location factors of iron and steel industries that deviate from the conventional proximity to raw material sources.
    • Analyze how advancements in technology, logistics, and global supply chains have influenced the strategic relocation of these industries, emphasizing the significance of skilled labor, market accessibility, and sustainability initiatives.
  • Conclusion
    • Finally, conclude by highlighting the evolving dynamics of the iron and steel industries, underscoring the intricate balance between traditional raw material-centric locations and the growing influence of market-driven and sustainable considerations in shaping the industry’s geographical footprint.


Raw materials and energy resources play a pivotal role in the inception, growth, and clustering of the iron and steel industry. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, these industries were primarily situated near coal reserves due to the substantial weight loss incurred during the processing stages.

Yet, as time progressed, the scarcity of raw materials, the advent of innovative technologies such as electric furnaces, and the development of more efficient transportation systems prompted the iron and steel industry to shift its focus away from direct proximity to the sources of raw materials.


Closeness to markets: Industries tend to relocate near consumer markets. For instance, Tata Steel in Jamshedpur is positioned in proximity to mineral-rich areas and major urban centers.

Availability of skilled workforce: The availability of skilled labor affects the choice of industry location, with cities and industrial hubs offering a larger talent pool, thereby enhancing operational efficiency.

Infrastructure and transport provisions: Efficient transportation is pivotal. Being near ports, railways, and well-developed road networks decreases expenses. As seen with Essar Steel in Hazira, its advantageous coastal location aids in this aspect.

Government policies and incentives: Tax exemptions, subsidies, and Special Economic Zones (SEZs) allure industries to specific regions through governmental incentives.

Access to energy supplies: Industries reliant on energy sources factor in the accessibility of stable power, which significantly impacts their location decisions.

Environmental regulations: Strict environmental protocols influence industry placement. Some plants may choose regions with more lenient regulations to mitigate compliance costs.


Presently, the siting of steel plants emphasizes the equitable significance of three key elements: coal, iron ore, and market accessibility. However, the alignment of any two factors plays a decisive role in determining the location of a steel plant.

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